• Help desk

    9 Aug 2016
    Harish Mani
    A help desk is a department in an organization which helps in the following:
    • Technical queries resolution
    • Service request fulfillment
    • Solving issues raised by end users
    The main goal of the help desk is to help user return to normal services, so that there is no hindrance in his ongoing work. Depending on organization’s convenience they can outsource the help desk support or can have an in-house help desk.
    Help desk may follow a hierarchical structure. At each level there will be service desk analysts with different level of skill sets. First level analyst usually help the users with simple issues and commonly asked questions. If the analyst at first level is not able to resolve the issue, then it will be transferred to second level. Second level analysts are more experienced and are able to resolve complex queries. Based on the size of the organization, it may also have analysts at third level. These analysts usually deal with software related issues such as bug fixing or software updates.
    To raise a request or an issue, a user can contact the help desk via telephone, e- mail, or help desk software. Now a days the most commonly used methodology to log any issues or requests is via help desk software. This software helps to track the progress of the ticket and communicate the same to the user. The software used by the help desk is usually a web based application.
    Mentioned below are few terminologies which makes it easier to understand how the help desk application works:
    Ticket: A ticket is a request raised by a user on help desk application. There can be different types of tickets like:
    • Change Request: User can request for any specific hardware or software which s/he wants to be installed in his / her system.
    • Security: This is mainly used for User account creation / modification / deletion
    • Issue: Focuses specifically on the technical issues faced by the user.
    • Queries: User will select this option if he wants an understanding or need guidance on certain processes / functionalities
    • Others: User will select this option if s/he is not sure about the category in which the ticket will fit in.
    Status: Status will display the actual status of the ticket. A help desk application can have the following status:
    • Open: The ticket status will be open, when no service desk analyst / agent is assigned to the ticket.
    • WIP: The status of the ticket will be set to WIP, when an analyst / agent is working on the ticket.
    • On-Hold: Status will be on-hold if the analyst / agent requires additional input from the user. Status can also be kept on-hold if the submitted ticket requires approval from a higher authority or depends on deployment.
    • Resolved: An analyst will set the status to “Resolved” once he has fixed the issue from his end.
    • Closed: Status will be set to “Closed” once the end user confirms that the issue has been fixed.
    Priority: Depending on the urgency, the priority will be set to High, Medium and Low. Tickets will be resolved depending on the priority of the tickets.
    • Example: Helpdesk team receives two tickets with “High” Priority from two employees A and B for the same issue saying “system’s speaker is not working”. Employee A is the manager and employee B is a level 2 employee who has a project demo with the client on Skype. In this case based on the explanation on the raised ticket, help desk team will give high priority to Employee B’s ticket considering s/he has demo with the client.
    A general workflow of help desk ticket can be explained in the following manner:
    • A user submits a ticket on the help desk application. While submitting the ticket, user can also add details regarding the issue faced.
    • As soon as the ticket is submitted, an agent / analyst is assigned to the ticket depending on his / her availability.
    • In the process of resolving the ticket, an agent / analyst may interact with the user, if required. If the ticket needs approval from higher authority, it will be assigned to appropriate person.
    • Once the issue has been resolved, agent / analyst will change the status of the ticket to “Resolved”.
    • A notification will be sent to the user from help desk application, stating that the issue has been resolved. If the user is happy with the provided solution s/he will change the status of the ticket to “Closed”, else s/he can keep the ticket open along with the reason for the same.
    • The ticket may be added to the knowledge base by the agent / analyst. The knowledge base can be later referred to provide quick solutions, in case the users face the same problem again.
    It is the responsibility of the help desk team to make sure that there is no downtime in an organization which would hamper the productivity. Help desk application helps in effective communication between the users and the help desk analyst. It also supports help desk analyst in tracking and resolving the issues at the earliest.
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  • Manual vs. Automated Testing

    15 Jul 2016
    Harish Mani
    Manual and Automation testing, these are two types of testing, we can use both methods, but depends on project requirement, budget and also which is benefited to the project.

    Manual and Automation testing both has overlap between the capabilities but no one can replace the other.

    Manual Testing:
    These is a testing process in which we can do manually and find the defect without the usage of tools or automation script.
    Following are the types of testing types are performed manually during the testing life cycle (STLC) :
    Acceptance Testing: This type of testing done by User or a customer and verifies that the system meets the customer specified requirements or not.
    White Box Testing (Glass box Testing): This type of testing based on information of the internal logic of an application’s code. It works on Internal working code of the system. Testing are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions.
    Black Box Testing: These testing done from any non-technical tester No need to knowledge on any internal code/part of the system. It is a testing method to test functionalities and requirements of the system.
    Unit Testing: It is use to test specific component of software or module, specially this testing done by developer and not by testers, because it needs thorough knowledge of the internal programming design and code.
    System Testing: It is a technique to test whole system as per requirements.
    Integration Testing: This testing done after integrate the modules to verify the functionality is working fine. Modules are typically code modules, individual applications, client and server applications on a network, etc. This type of testing is especially applicable to client/server and distributed systems.
    Manual Tester need to think and act an End user perspective and tester need to be very patient, creative and open minded.
    Automation Testing:
    Regression testing which are repetitive actions going to automated, automation makes use of specialized tools like selenium, QTP etc. To control the execution of tests and compares actual result against the expected result.
    Testing Tools like selenium webdriver , QTP not only help us to perform regression tests but also helps us to automate data set up generation, product installation, GUI interaction, defect logging, etc.
    Typically, there are 3 test automation frameworks that are adopted while automating the applications.
    Data Driven Automation Framework: In data driven Framework , while Test case logic resides in Test Scripts, the Test Data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts.Test Data is read from the external files like Excel Files, Text Files, CSV Files etc and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used both for Input values and for Verification values.
    Keyword Driven Automation Framework (Table-Driven): The Keyword-Driven framework requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation tool used to execute them . Tests can be designed with or without the Application. In this framework test, the functionality of the application-under-test is documented in a table as well as in step-by-step instructions for each test that’s why it is also known as Table-Driven framework.
    Hybrid Automation Framework: As the name suggests this framework is the combination of one or more frameworks like data-driven and keyword driven from their strengths and trying to mitigate their weaknesses. This hybrid test automation framework is what most frameworks evolve into over time and multiple projects. Typically maximum industry uses Keyword Framework in combination of Function decomposition method.
    Popular Tools that are used for Functional automation:
    1. QTP
    2. Rational Robot
    3. Coded UI
    4. Selenium
    Popular Tools that are used for Non-Functional automation:
    1. Jmeter
    2. Load Runner
    3. Burp Suite
    In Automation you will take a look at your code, change it and continue to run tests until the actual and expected result are not verify. In this method which uses automation tools to run the tests that repeat predefined actions, match with real result. If the project prospects and results align, your project is behaving as it should, and you are likely defect free. If the two don’t align, still, there is a problem that requires to be addressed.
    After knowing about of manual and automation testing, For excellence software testing, both testing methods are required and both should be studied sensibly because those values characterize the core of Software QA. Now its easy to choose that which type of testing is useful in a particular situation. Same kind of testing we can not use in all situations, so that make a right decision before start the any testing can save your lots of time and offer improve results inclusive.
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  • Role of a Business Analyst in UAT

    15 Jul 2016
    Harish Mani
    A Business Analyst plays a vital role in any software development phase. BA does requirements gathering for development of software. It is very critical to understand the business needs and the kind of components which need to go in the system to be built. For this purpose to be served; the business analyst needs to step into the user’s shoes, have a thorough knowledge of the domain and be detail oriented. UAT is one of the important phases of software development life cycle, after which on receiving a sign-off, the system goes live. Once the software or the system is developed, it undergoes various stages of testing and UAT is one of the testing stages performed by the business users. The ultimate goal is to build a system which meets the requirements specified by the business and a system which is bug-free.
    Importance of Business Analyst in UAT
    • The Business Analyst is a bridge between the business side and the development team. The development team solely relies on a BA to developthe software as far as the functionality and the components of the system are concerned. A gap in understanding can lead to gaps in the system. There are various important reasons for involving a business analyst in UAT.
    • As already stated above, BA understands the functional working of the software and has the know-how to validate the system. The fact that the system has been built as per the requirements specification, doesn’t make it acceptable. A sign-off from the stakeholders is necessary for this. BA and the stakeholders work mutually towards this.
    • When testing comes into picture; test cases are prepared which are performed during UAT by the business users. Test cases help in getting a real time understanding of the functioning of the system developed. A business analyst helps in achieving this.
    • UAT checks the effectiveness and efficiency of the system. When a BA is involved in UAT, he can help clear the doubts and questions of the users during testing sessions, as he is the one with end-to-end functional knowledge of the system.
    • UAT also helps in zeroing down if any new feature or functionality needs to be incorporated in the software. The rationale behind the necessity of the new feature is evaluated by the business analyst and Change Advisory Board together, along with other business stakeholders.
    • If any errors are discovered during UAT, which impose risk on the working of the system and have a high impact on the functioning of other modules, they are rectified or undergo change management (depending on the severity of the error). A business analyst helps in determining the severity of the errors.
    • UAT helps the users in checking if the system is running smoothly as per the specifications and expectations. This helps in avoiding any drastic changes to the system once it has gone live. The presence of a BA helps in ensuring the precision of the software.
    The involvement of a business analyst depends on the type of organisation and the type of project. In any case, it is important that a business analyst has commendable analytical skills, should wear his thinking cap when decision making is concerned, should be detail oriented and knowledgeable about the business domain. If not, then a good research work always helps. Having a business analyst involved during User Acceptance Testing will not only help in making the business users properly understand the working of the system, but also aid in supporting the training, find out the loopholes and give a proper solution or a mitigation plan for the same.
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  • Management’s Role in Audit Assessment

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani
    An internal audit assessment typically has 3 phases: Planning, Testing and Reporting. Management has an important role to play in each of the above phase of the assessment
    During planning, the auditors prepare the audit plan that outlines the guidelines to be followed during assessment. It also covers the risks / impacts and the planned responses for the same. It is then the responsibility of the management to guarantee that the plan is understood by the senior officials. Management should make sure that senior officials agree with the audit purpose and approach. An open end discussion with the audit team on the approach on how to go about the whole process of audit is important. This helps the management and the audit team to align on the prospects in advance. Management talks about the assessment criteria that the auditors will use in testing the controls with the employees in the company, helping them understand on what needs to be done for the successful accomplishment of the audit.
    During testing, the Management allows the auditors to investigate the company’s critical systems and frameworks. Management agrees with the audit results by checking the procedures and information so as to gain trust in the audit findings. The audit group and senior officials of different departments that were audited meet frequently throughout the audit procedure – generally weekly or monthly – to talk about audit progress, identified issues, and potential activities.
    Such open, straightforward meetings between senior officials from both Management and the audit groups help avoid misunderstandings before the audit group issues its draft report. The auditors should convey all crucial findings to management at the earliest, even before the planned meetings. These findings are investigated during regular meetings, however proactive notification is essential.
    Once the auditors complete the assessment, they prepare the final audit report which outlines the gaps in the processes and corrective actions that need to be taken by the management. This will help in making the processes more effective and efficient. The management checks the findings, analyzes the gaps in the processes and thereby implements the corrective actions as suggested by auditors.
    Audit Communication flow
    • During planning, the audit team prepares and communicates the audit plan to the management. The meeting is then conducted between the management and auditors to discuss the audit goals and scope of the assessment
    • Once the audit plan is finalized, auditors then test the controls by checking the evidences submitted by the management. Management also validates testing processes and meets frequently with the audit teams to discuss audit progress and issues
    • Post assessment, audit team issues draft report and conducts meeting with management. After all the discussions, the audit team issues the final report, which is then reviewed and agreed upon by the management
    • The management then starts to work on the gaps found in the processes by implementing the remediation as suggested by the auditors
    • The auditors then follow up to check how well the Management has implemented the corrective actions suggested in the report
    The point of all this is: Audit team and Management should work in a joint effort throughout the audit assessment to guarantee that auditors meet objectives and have legitimate knowledge of IT and business forms. Great correspondence throughout the audit process guarantees that audit findings are applicable and can be utilized for the progress of the company.
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  • Kanban Methodology

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani
    With IT systems becoming a major competitive factor in a many domains, We have IT projects which are getting larger and complex by the day, directly or indirectly affecting more and more parts of the organization, the demand is to complete this projects at a much faster pace than earlier, so if something does go wrong this ends up posing a major risk to the company. With evolving technologies in the software industry it is vital to maintain a managing methodology that enables you to deliver products on time and with high quality.
    What is Kanban?
    Kanban is a set of tools you can use to become more agile i.e. improve the functioning of a project based on an Agile methodology. Kanban is a methodology for managing work by concentrating on delivery while not over stressing the team members with a lot of work at any given point of time. This approach allows all participants to have a complete view of the process right from the creation of tasks to the final delivery of a product to a customer.
    Kanban is less structured than Scrum. It’s not a process framework at all, it introduces change through incremental improvements. Kanban makes use of a Kanban board to represent the work and workflow. The Kanban board has columns representing states/activities involved in the development of an application/software, for instance the different states can be Analysis, Development, Testing, Deployment etc.
    How does Kanban improve agile?
    An important element of the Kanban methodology is WIP (Work in progress limit) limit. The WIP limit defines the number of work items are allowed to be in a certain state at any given point in time. If a state reaches its defined WIP limit, no new work items can be added to that state. The whole team has to help clear the filled up state first. The WIP limit allows to track work items trapped in a particular state as they will build highly visible clusters on the Kanban board, therefore allowing the team to focus and clear items in the state first before pulling in other tasks.
    Why Kanban?
    The Kanban method does not prescribe a certain setup or procedure. Kanban can be implemented on top of an existing workflow or process to bring issues to light to introduce positive change over time. This makes it easy to implement Kanban because it does not call for major changes to the existing way in which projects are being run.
    Where do we start to work with Kanban?
    There are a few core properties which can help implement Kanban smoothly
    • Visualize and decide the workflow: Kanban helps optimize the flow of work through the system, to do that we need to understand the existing workflow to aspire to improve it by making the necessary adjustments.
    • Visualize your incoming work requests: Any project plan that has been defined can be disrupted if the forecasting of future incoming/adhoc requests is not properly done. It is also important to categorize these requests on the basis of priority and impact before stacking them on the Kanban board
    • Limit WIP: The critical factor in Kanban is that WIP tasks in each state in the workflow is limited by a defined capacity and that new work can be pulled only when there is available capacity in accordance with the local WIP limit. Thus a properly defined WIP limit can work wonders in making Kanban to work for a project.
    • Regular feedback loops: Regardless of the models you use, you need to have regular feedback as it is crucial to success. This feedback isn’t limited to responses from people. This can include analyzing adherence to the checkpoints, involving the team for comments and suggestions, etc.
    To sum it all up, If you are not continually improving, but are conforming to the other parts defined by Kanban, you are missing the point. It is a little like the concept of following an Agile methodology but not being agile.
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  • Service Portfolio Management

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani

    Service Portfolio Management is the process of collection of services to meet customer requirements and describe it in terms of value to the business.The main task of the Service portfolio management process is to provide a set of tools / applications / Services. It helps for assessing and approval of new or changed services and to manage the IT services throughout their lifecycles.

    Service Portfolio Management contributes to the service development life cycle by achieving the following goals:

    • Maintain the documentation of each service operation
    • Set standard activities and procedures for new services, service delivery
    • Making continuous improvement of services by reviewing at regular interval

    The service portfolio maintains three categories of services, defined by lifecycle phase:

    • Services in Pipeline: Services that are planned or in development,but not yet available to the consumers
    • Service in Catalog: Services that are currently released and deployed or ready for the consumers
    • Retired Services: Services that are no longer active

    Service portfolio management includes sub processes as below:

    Service Stretegy


    Define the problem or business scenario and gather information / details to solve the defined problem.


    In this process, analyse the impact of the new services or change in existing services, long term business goal, market value, demand, technical feasibility, capability and financial availability. It helps to develop or set up the service which meets with the requirement.


    Management checks the Service proposal by reviewing the impact, objective, benefits, business value, risk etc. If Service proposal is beneficial, management gives approval to initiate or incorporate the design of new service or change in existing service.


    After approval, communicate the decision to respective team to allocate resources, planning,design, budget, etc. for the new service or change in service.

    Advantages or Value add to my Business:

    • It helps to get an insight to choose a best service which is aligned with your business goal
    • Improves the performance of the business as right Services are created and provided at the right time for right cost
    • It helps to diversify business by providing information about current market trends
    • It helps in cost reduction by providing information of upcoming services, duplicate services, inefficient services, unnecessary or unused services where we can take decision for service creation, improvement, delivery or retirement

    Service Portfolio Management helps to quickly find out the service as per requirement and business-based decisions regarding services.

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  • Business Analyst Documentation – Bare Essentials

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani
    Apart from the various tasks that a Business Analyst(BA) has to perform, documentation is one of the most integral job functions of a BA. BA prepares numerous documents throughout the course of the project. All these documents are created to fulfill various project needs and they cater to audiences belonging to different domains of a project. The type and specifications of a BA’s document depends upon parameters like organization’s processes and policies, expectations of the business and the stakeholder requirements.
    Every specified document has a pre-defined template (as agreed by all the parties in the project) and it’s a part of the overall project documentation. The list of common documents a Business Analyst creates which are extensively used throughout the course of any project are as follows:
    Let’s understand these documents in a bit more detail.

    1. Project Vision Document

    Project Vision Document is mainly created by the Project Manager (Client Side) but Business Analyst is also expected to input his/her contribution to this document. A Project vision document encompasses the purpose and need of the product/software to be developed and also gives an overview about the required business objective.

    The Project vision document mainly contains:

    2. Requirement Management Plan
    Requirements Management Plan is used to effectively manage requirements right from the start to the end of the project i.e. from Project Initiation up to Project Delivery. Requirement Management Plan contains all the necessary information required to that helps in project management. This plan is created in the Planning Phase of the project and its target audience are the Project Manager, Business Analyst, Team Lead and any senior leaders whose is entitled to carry out the plan.

    The Requirement Management Plan basically contains:

    3. Business Requirement Document (BRD)

    A Business Requirement Document is used to describe the business requirements of the project and the end result that is expected from the Product/process. It is one of the most widely accepted and used project requirement document that is referred throughout the development life-cycle for any project. BRD mainly concentrates on countering the business solution and is mainly concentrates on the business requirements.

    The Business Requirement Document contains:

    4. Use Cases

    The goal of each and every project is to implement the project as per the requirements and the document which explains these requirements elaborately is a use case. Use case is a methodology that is used in system analysis in order to identify, define, clarify and organize system requirements with the help of actors and system. Use cases are generally used to show the users perspective and contains all system activities that have significance to the users. It can also be a collection of scenarios related to a particular requirement.

    The Use Case document contains:

    5. Functional Requirement Specification (FRS)

    Functional Requirement Specification gives an in-depth description of the system including data, input, operations, output and the other properties of the system. In a BRD, requirements are high level but in a FRS, they are described in much more details to capture all the aspects of the requirement. Hence a FRS is more technical, precise and descriptive requirement document. As the document is technical, FRS are usually used by developers, QA and the business stakeholders of a project.

    The Functional Requirement Specification (FRS) also known as Functional Specification Document (FSD) contains:

    6. System Requirement Specification (SRS)

    A detailed document that has information about the how the product has to function and explains software, hardware, behavioral and functional requirements of the system. This document does not contain any major technical information and is only used to elaborate the requirement from the functionality perspective.

    The System Requirement Specification (SRS) contains:

    7. Test Case
    Writing a Test Case does not explicitly come under a BA’s task list but a BA should have a fair understanding about how a Test Case is written. BA’s don’t create Test Cases but use them for testing functionalities of the product. Thus, a test case is a standardized document which is be referred when a requirement is implemented and ready to be tested.

    The components of a test case are:

    All the above documents that are created by a BA are a crucial part of the project. The documentation standard might change from organization to organization and project to project but the core content remains the same.
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  • Data Loss Prevention

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani

    Have you ever imagined, your confidential data being possessed by someone you don’t even know and its consequences. Gosh!

    This can be a reality!

    Nowadays data is more transferrable and accessible than ever before, giving rise to the fear of loss and misuse of the data. Leakage of data could cause embarrassment, financial loss etc. depending upon the criticality of the data. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) detects and prevents the unauthorized transfer or access of the confidential data.

    DLP is the identification and monitoring of the sensitive data to ensure that it is only accessed by authorized users and that there are safeguards against data leaks.

    What types of data are to be protected?

    In order to protect and prevent data loss, it is important to understand what types of data are at stake.

    • Data in motion: It should be confirmed that the data moving over the network is going to the authorized user. The data in motion can leak through HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and P2P etc.
    • Data in use: The data residing on end user workstations, laptops are data in use. The data in use can be leaked using USB, Emails, Web mails, HTTP/HTTPS etc.
    • Data at rest: Any type of repositories that holds the data like databases are data at rest. There could be data leakage due to unauthorized access, data theft etc.DLP products are designed to detect sensitive data.


    It is important to identify the sensitive data and ensure that there is structured use of the sensitive data. The data should reside at right place, accessed and owned by right people.

    Data Loss Prevention Approach

    To implement data loss prevention, following activities should be considered:

    • Data Classification: Most of the organizations are not aware of the types of information and their locations. The first task is to identify the sensitive data and their flows. It is very important to understand the data life cycle.
    • Establish high level policies and processes: After classifying the information, policies should be created or modified to define the classifications and ensure proper handling.
    • Implementation: DLP Implementation should first be in monitoring mode,so that its impact to the business processes could be predicted. DLP is implemented by preparation of the process to be used, deployment plan, setting deployment policies and ultimately managing the overall process.
    • Remediation of Violations: DLP solutions provide the information about the sensitive data and its transmission. So the organization can address the issues. They should be prepared to address and prioritize the issues in best possible manner. The analysis and decisions should be documented for audit purpose.
    • Ongoing DLP program: The DLP solutions should be monitored. The rules should be reviewed and optimized periodically. The impact of the patches and upgrades of the DLP solutions should be tested. Awareness should be spread about the DLP solution through various programs and training.


    Benefits of DLP solution

    • Some of the benefits of the DLP solutions implementation are the following:
    •  Protection of critical data
    • Enhancing the business processes as per the requirements.
    • Managing and optimising the storage space like file server and network bandwidth.
    • Reducing the damage caused by malicious software by alerting or blocking the data streams.


    Conclusion: Data Loss Prevention is the strategy of identifying and protecting the unauthorised transmission and access of the sensitive information.

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  • A Guide to Write Effective Use Cases

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani


    Use Cases portray how an actor will interact with a system to give an output which is of importance to the user or the stakeholders. Actors are the users who will interact with the user interface. Use case specifies a list of actions or steps between an actor and the system. Thus, use cases are dynamic models which describe how the state of various objects changes when events occur. Use cases are not design specifications. They are user requirements which can be portrayed in a diagrammatic form, text form, flow/sequence charts or programming languages; which describe the functionality of the system that provide value. They are effective means of communicating detailed information to meet the project development goals and help in achieving business goals.

    Use Case Diagrams

    Use case diagrams are a type of Unified Modelling Language diagrams, defined by Object Management Group, through which one can analyse the use cases. They provide realistic overview or visual reference of the components of use cases. These diagrams can be made depending upon the relationship between the actors and the system. They help in identifying needs of the user.

    Effective Ways for Writing Use Cases

    The definition of a use case sounds simple, but when it comes to depicting them, it takes a lot more than just a clear understanding of the definition. There are various factors involved which need to be taken into consideration for writing or presenting an effective use case.

    • Firstly understanding what a use case is (and is not), different terminologies involved while making use cases, important elements of use cases, information required for making the flow, kind of flows involved, etc.
    • It is important to concentrate on the result of a use case and not just its functionality. Without an effective result, a use case holds no value.
    • They should be UAT based.
    • Use cases should be like the pieces of puzzle, which fit together to create a story. They should be structured well, to form a clear picture of the scenario.
    • It becomes easier to portray the whole picture by breaking down the process and modularize it. But again, one should be able to tell the entire concept to illustrate end-to-end framework. References help to achieve this goal. Never use references in the main flow as it can divert the focus from the main flow to another flow, which is not advised.
    • Create a single main flow for a particular use case. Don’t try getting into making multiple for the same process. This will defy the purpose of the use case and create confusion in what goal needs to be achieved. The main flow should capture details when things go right and target is accomplished.
    • One can create alternative flows. They explain the process when there is a deviation from the normal path. These variances can be errors or exceptions. However, these deviations are not comparatively important to the main flow.
    • Try putting yourself in the actor’s shoes and analyse the situation. Write or represent the use case based on this analysis so that it makes the system user-friendly.
    • Write a use case in a way which leaves no ambiguity while narrowing down at the goal to be accomplished and understanding the system from user-perspective. One can achieve this by putting into practice the above ideas and doing more research work to better oneself.



    A well written use case with a steady approach becomes a way to achieve business goals. Users, stakeholders as well the development team should unanimously agree and understand the approach chosen. It not only makes the development part easier, but also lends the system a quality in terms of obstacle free operation along with the simplicity of system. Also, an organization can come up with a standardized way of documenting the guidelines for making use cases.

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  • Smart Retail – Before Convincing, Start Connecting

    3 Jun 2016
    Harish Mani

    In last 5 years Indian customers’ experience with purchasing in a retail environment has undergone a massive change. But the first question strikes on my mind while thinking about retail management is “What is the responsible factor behind the change?“

    Massive e-commerce boom of course! It is equally encouraging for e-commerce companies to receive such huge response. While, on one hand, e-commerce retailing has started to change the notion of shopping in the country, on the other hand, the traditional brick-and-mortar stores are struggling hard against the rioting success of online shopping.

    How to bridge the gap between online and offline retail market?

    To bridge the gap between the  online and offline retail market we need to design the customer centric model in which all efforts will be made to provide ease to the customers while shopping from both online and offline market.

    In order to make the procedure smart we need to take care of following aspects so that our model should work efficiently as per customer’s ease of shopping.

    • Best time for them to shop.
    • Types of offers that influence customers’ decision making process.
    • Demography.
    • Proffered Product with preferred price range.
    • Kind of content they find most interactive.
    • Customer’s responsiveness to promotional campaigns.
    • What kind of campaign is suitable for which class of customers?
    • Time when like-minded shoppers prefer visiting the store.


    Connecting the Unconnected

    Technological advancement and increasing numbers of tech savvy customers hold both curse and blessing for brick-and-mortar retailers. If they resolutely indulge in making technological advancement work for them, then they will have attention of the large tech savvy customer base. Failure to do so would only quicken their defeat against online competitors.

    Customer Centric approach

    One-stop solution for the retailer to overcome and understand customers’ needs which include following techniques that will create a win-win situation for retailer and the customer.

    1. Customize the Shopping Experience

    “Always Listen – What your customers are saying?” At a time when it’s easy to have a two-way dialogue with your customers, it’s important to truly listen. When listening to your customers, take into account what changes your organization should make from this feedback, and then follow through. Your customers are the lifeblood of your organization, and not dealing with the reasonable requests could cause backlash.

    1. Achieving Shop-ability

    To ensure that your store is shop-able, your store, staff and assortment needs to team up impeccably. Then, retailers must know how to improve their store. This is when new, advanced technologies and retail analytics will help you to a considerable extent. Analytics would give you a better insight as to how your shoppers response or behave when choosing products from the shelves. This means you will able to identify precisely what to improve on.

    1. Improved Customer Service

    Customer service is also changing with the lapse of time. Today, customer service executives have the required data essential to answer customer queries and resolve their issues. All of this information is available at their fingertips! This has two distinct benefits such as

    • Customer service representatives can multitask.
    • Resolving problems much faster than expected.
    1. What Purpose is served

    ‘Smart Retail – Smart India ‘The purpose of smart retail is to provide instant accessibility to the customer so that it would be convenient for them to buy any product online or offline. Eventually the customer will save time and will prove to be the efficient way which in turn serve our purpose of doing the thing in the smartest way i.e. smart retail and smart India.


    Retail management in an efficient manner will play an important role as smart retailing in Indian market will serve as the time consuming, transparent and reliable technique or practice.

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